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Create an AI-powered research feed to stay up to date with new papers like this posted to ArXiv. Puziah HashimM. Mohd RidzwanJamilah Bakar. Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline.

Some features of the site may not work correctly. Mohd RidzwanJamilah Bakar Published The chicken feet collagen is rich in the amino acids glycine, glutamic acid, proline and hydroxyproline. View PDF. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed.

Share This Paper. Figures and Tables from this paper. Figures and Tables. References Publications referenced by this paper. Extraction and characterisation of pepsin-solubilised collagen from fins, scales, skins, bones and swim bladders of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Dasong LiuLi LiangJoe Mac RegensteinPeng Zhou Chemistry Characteristics of acid soluble collagen and pepsin soluble collagen from scale of spotted golden goatfish Parupeneus heptacanthus.

MuyongaC. Gelatins from three cultured freshwater fish skins obtained by liming process B. JamilahKang Wei TanM. Umi HartinaAulia Azizah Chemistry Characteristics of collagen from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus skin isolated by two different methods. Related Papers.It has been debated that employees in a government or public ownership agency may perceive less need for growth opportunities or high-powered incentives than is the case for employees in private organizations.

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Taiwan. From responding community health centers, staff members responded to the self-completed, structured questionnaire. Autonomy refers to a context of accountability, authority and responsibility Mrayyan, This perspective views job autonomy as structural empowerment Kanter,through access to information, support, resources and growth opportunities that directly affect workers' level of control.

According to Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory, job autonomy is a factor that motivates employees Herzberg et al. In the Job Characteristics Model, job autonomy is viewed as one of the core task characteristics i. Job autonomy also is viewed as a protection against negative outcomes for those individuals who use emotional work strategies Johnson and Spector, to counter the stress of high job demands Spoor et al. Moreover, increased job autonomy is related to increased task variability and more customized care for patients Streit and Brannon, It has been debated that employees in a government or public ownership agency may perceive less need for growth opportunities or high-powered incentives than is the case for employees in private organizations Dixit, On the other hand, it was argued that in pubic organizations, more participation in decision-making, less political penetration, more respectful and supportive supervision and more opportunities for advancement are factors in employees' commitment to their organizations Balfour and Wechsler, As public health-care organizations, Veterans Health Administration centers have appreciated the value of high-involvement work systems, characterized as a holistic work design of these interrelated core features: involvement, empowerment, development, trust, openness, teamwork and performance-based rewards.

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These features were found to be associated with both greater employee satisfaction and lower costs for patient services Harmon et al. Also, the attempt in the primary care trust PCTpart of the National Health Services NHS in England, which is the publicly funded healthcare system, to make employees more autonomous was seen as a strategy to increase organizational control.

However, it was also argued that tensions can arise between the promotion of a discourse of autonomy versus the need to control employees to achieve centrally determined objectives efficiently, or by creating expectations that are not fulfilled.

The introduction of a discourse of autonomy in this case left staff feeling undervalued and demoralized McDonald and Harrison, Community health centers in Taiwan are government-run. They are the first line of primary care providers, responsible for national disease prevention and providing primary care services in their communities.

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Conceptual framework of job autonomy's predispositions and work outcomes in community health centers. Moreover, it has been argued that government-run health-care organizations may be relatively bureaucratic and hierarchical and thus may obstruct participatory decision-making Rainey, Metrics details.

Resilience refers to the ability to be flexible and adaptive in response to challenges. Medical students in clerkship who are transitioning from medical studies to clinical practice face a variety of workplace demands that can lead to negative learning experiences and poor quality of life.

This was a 1-year prospective web-based questionnaire study comprising one cohort of medical students in their fifth year who were working as clerks as part of their 6-year medical education programme at one medical school in Taiwan between September and July Ninety-three medical students who responded to our specialty rotation surveys at least three times in the clerkship were included and hierarchical regressions were performed.

Peer Review reports. These difficulties can range from adversities to traumas, tragedies, and threats; these can even be significant sources of stress, such as family and relationship problems, serious health problems, or workplace and financial stresses [ 2 ].

Resilience is viewed as a flexible and adaptive act performed in response to challenges or an aggregate concept of multiple qualities, both of which indicate an ability to survive and address the likely consequences of handling pressure or adversity [ 3 ]. However, one study in Canada revealed that medical students had higher perceived stress, poorer coping skills, and lower resilience than age- and gender-matched peers in the general population [ 11 ]. One study argued that medical students face numerous stressors during their study curricula, which require adequate resilience to ensure healthy adaptation [ 12 ].

In particular, medical students experience considerable challenges in their learning experiences and career development when they transit from the classroom to clinical environments or progress from the position of junior resident to attending physician. Whether before or after graduation, undergoing clinical training is more challenging than studying at school and can trigger many physical and mental health conditions particularly mental disorders and emotional exhaustion in medical students [ 13 ].

Studies have also revealed that medical students can encounter stressful clinical events [ 14 ] and psychological and physical demands [ 1516 ] during their clinical training years. A review study covering the peer-reviewed, English-language articles in MEDLINE between and revealed a prevalence of burnout among trainees, including medical students, residents, and interns, to a much higher level than found among the general population [ 17 ].

Another study indicated that medical students should be equipped with not only medical knowledge but also an awareness of how to properly care for themselves [ 13 ]. Our specific hypotheses are as follows:. Our study comprised one cohort of medical students undergoing their clerkships during their fifth year of a 6-year medical education programme at one medical school in Taiwan between September and July In Taiwan, medical students undergoing clerkships are equivalent to third- or fourth-year students undergoing clinical training in 4-year graduate medical programmes in western countries.

Of medical students, Structured and self-administered questionnaires were used in this study, consisting of the following measures:. Resilience was measured using the item Resilience Scale, with each item evaluated on a 7-point Likert-type scale from 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree [ 19 ]. Principal components factor analysis was performed, and one common factor was constrained.

Finally, the resilience score of 13 items was calculated by the mean for further analysis. Two stress constructs, namely psychological and physical demands, were extracted [ 15 ].

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Psychological demands referred to mental workloads such as hard work, fast-paced work environment, busy at work, not enough sleeping time, work fatigue and intense work concentration, whereas physical demands referred to physical loads including physical positions, activities and loads [ 24 ]. Factor analysis revealed that the psychological six items and physical four items demands had factor loadings of 0.

Detailed information is listed in Table 2.

Medical students’ resilience: a protective role on stress and quality of life in clerkship

Factor scores for both psychological and physical demands were calculated using a regression model for further analysis [ 15 ]. The ProQOL contains questions on the positive and negative effects of working with individuals who have experienced stress [ 26 ].

Burnout is a negative emotion associated with feelings of difficulty and hopelessness in managing work or performing a job effectively [ 27 ]. In this study, it was evaluated using 10 questions inquiring how frequently the medical students experienced various emotions related to burnout, with five possible responses: 1 never2 seldom3 sometimes4 oftenand 5 always [ 27 ].These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days.

Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated.

Black garlic is a processed food product obtained by subjecting whole raw garlic to thermal processing that causes chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction, which change the composition of the garlic. In this paper, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance NMR -based comprehensive analysis of raw garlic and black garlic extracts to determine the compositional changes resulting from thermal processing.

For example, the contents of 11 l -amino acids increased during the first step of thermal processing over 5 days and then decreased. Multivariate data analysis revealed changes in the contents of fructose, glucose, acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, cycloalliin, and 5- hydroxymethyl furfural 5-HMF.

Our results provide comprehensive information on changes in NMR-detectable components during thermal processing of whole garlic. Detailed signal assignment data for the NMR experiments of the raw and black garlic extracts.

The American Chemical Society holds a copyright ownership interest in any copyrightable Supporting Information. Files available from the ACS website may be downloaded for personal use only. Users are not otherwise permitted to reproduce, republish, redistribute, or sell any Supporting Information from the ACS website, either in whole or in part, in either machine-readable form or any other form without permission from the American Chemical Society. For permission to reproduce, republish and redistribute this material, requesters must process their own requests via the RightsLink permission system.

Food Chem. View Author Information. Cite this: J.

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Article Views In total, medical students from 2 cohorts were included as participants in this study. We analyzed complete measures of personal background, objective and subjective preclinical academic performance course evaluation grades and self-reported efficacyCSE tendencies, and clinical competence as objective structured clinical examination scores and workplace well-being as compassion satisfaction and burnout during their 2-year clerkship.

Mixed linear models for repeated measures and multiple regressions were employed. Additionally, using the objective and subjective preclinical academic performance of the medical students as indicators, we observed that neither could be trait-relevant situations to enhance their CSE expression.

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These tendencies should be identified earlier so that mentors can provide prompt care and support to mentees medical students during clerkships. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. In recent years, core self-evaluation CSE has received attention in personality research.

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Principally in the field of organizational behavior, the effects of CSE on outcomes such as salary [ 3 ], goal setting [ 45 ], job searching behavior [ 6 ], job satisfaction [ 6 ], job or task performance [ 47 — 10 ], interpersonal relationships [ 11 ], career commitment [ 12 ], professional efficacy [ 13 ], and job burnout [ 12 — 16 ], have been verified in empirical studies.

In the field of higher education, CSE has been verified to affect student behaviors, including test anxiety [ 17 ], academic performance [ 1819 ], academic burnout [ 20 ], entrepreneurial intentions [ 21 ], continued career commitment [ 22 ], and life satisfaction [ 2324 ].

Transitioning from preclinical education to clerkship entails challenges for medical students, one notable example is encountering real patients or scenarios instead of simulated patients or scenarios [ 25 ]. When experiencing the stress involved in transitioning from preclinical education to clinical training, medical students who perceive themselves as active actors in control of their future and who trust in their ability to influence their environment can improve their well-being [ 2026 ].

CSE involves cognitive or subjective appraisals and assumes that people hold viewpoints regarding themselves, other people, and the world, and it thus influences their personal appraisals of external events; therefore, CSE is particularly suited for occupational stress research [ 27 ]. Therefore, the first hypothesis proposed in this study is as follows:. Therefore, on the basis of trait activation theory [ 2829 ], we postulated our second hypothesis:.

Institutional review board approval was obtained for this prospective cohort study, and written informed consent was obtained from the participating medical students. Through online surveys, this study aimed to determine the clinical competence and well-being dynamics of medical students enrolled in a 2-year clerkship. For medical students who fulfilled our inclusion criteria on the basis of the online surveys, data on their preclinical academic performance were retrospectively collected.

The study participants were medical students from 2 cohorts who were studying in the 7-year doctor of medicine MD program of a university medical school in Taiwan and who had commenced their 2-year clinical workplace training clerkship in September and September Yung-Kai Lin has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. Fatigue alarm apparatus and method. Patent number: Abstract: A fatigue alarm apparatus having a fatigue detector, a control unit and a stimulus alarm generator is illustrated.

The fatigue detector detects whether a driver is drowsy. The control unit is electrically connected to the fatigue detector and the stimulus alarm generator.

When the fatigue detector detects that the driver is drowsy, the stimulus alarm generator controlled by the control unit to generate two stimulus alarms having a rest time period therebetween, and then, after an interval period elapses, the control unit determines whether an alarming procedure of generating the two stimulus alarms is to be interrupted or repeated, wherein the rest time period is less than the interval period.

Type: Grant. Filed: October 25, Date of Patent: March 24, Publication number: Abstract: A manufacturing method of a battery structure is provided. A packing is provided, wherein the packing pre-forms an accommodating space.

A first battery unit is disposed into the accommodating space, wherein the first battery unit includes at least one anode and at least one cathode alternately stacked with each other and a dielectric layer located between the anode and the cathode. A separation membrane is disposed into the accommodating space and located on the first battery unit. A second battery unit is stacked onto the separation membrane, located in the accommodating space and includes at least one anode and at least one cathode alternately stacked with each other and a dielectric layer located between the anode and the cathode.

A dimension of the first battery unit is smaller than a dimension of the second battery unit. Electrolytes is injected into the accommodating space. The packing is sealed. Type: Application.Depressed feelings are a natural emotional reaction when we encounter difficulties that knock us down from feeling our regular self. We normally will automatically adjust our depressed mood back to a calmer status.

It may takes a couple of hours or a few weeks, depending on how well our adjusting system works. However, sometimes when the difficulty is greater than our self-adjusting system, we will be out of emotional balance and stay in the depressed mood for a longer period of time. In that case, we do not know how to get out of our depressed feelings.

That is when we seem to get stuck with depression.

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Anxiety occurs when we run into stressful situations. We experience it everyday, since living in the modern world is quite stressful.

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We need to make the deadline in work, to think about how to fit in, or to face the challenges from others. We normally automatically adjust our anxious condition back to a more relaxed status very quickly. When we are able to get out of the stressful situation, anxiety basically begins to reduce.

In this case, we can hardly be our relaxed self and perform as who we really are. It might be caused by traumatic incident, or has gradually formed in our nerves system as a habitual reaction. Living in the modern world, we encounter psychological and emotional challenges on regular basis.

Yang Kai Lin

The suffering that emerges from these inevitable challenges often gradually limits our ability to enjoy life. Some find it difficult to cope with this suffering and give up this inner battle.

They pass time like there is no hope. In the process of giving up the inner battle and losing hope, the trickiest thing is that we are usually unaware of how we unconsciously made things worse.

The work of mindfulness practice cultivates our self-awareness.

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It helps to facilitate change in emotion, thought, physical well-being, personal choice and action, and subtler psychic and spiritual energies. Being more mindful, we begin to see why our life challenges emerge and why we have became who we are today. In the process of mindfulness practice, we learn to understand ourselves and to face our difficulties. When we gradually discover our ability to grow, the challenge we encounter lose its power over us.


We start to feel stronger and more free. Learning mindfulness evokes us to be our better selves and allows us to access our infinite potentiality.

You might describe this as understanding your own story. A hallmark of the mindfulness approach is its broad acceptance and understanding of the many different and valid paths that each of us travel upon on our journey through life and towards greater wholeness. Mindfulness Counselling is a gentle, humanistic and holistic therapeutic approach that focuses your efforts through an emphasis on growth rather than deficit.

During your experience in psychotherapy with Kai-Lin you will focus on cultivating your own innate and personal capacities to overcome psychological difficulties. He believes that this ability to self-heal is found within you, and only needs to be discovered and explored. You will focus on a positive, forward looking process of self-transformation. As an Integral Coach, Kai-Lin will help you to explore your concerns in depth and assist you to reach your goals. In coaching, you will be more actively participate the coaching sessions with Kai-Lin.

He will evokes your potentiality to grow into who you really want to become. When you come closer to your goals, you will also gain more power to live your life fully and follow your own unique path through life.

Like most people, when I was young, I had to deal with many challenges and forms of personal suffering. After enduring a few crisis experiences at an early age, my interest in understanding human suffering was evoked. The more seriously I looked into my own suffering, the more I realized that the only way to understand it is to learn about human inner experience.

I began to study Buddhism, Taoism, J.

yung-kai lin

As my understanding about inner experience grew, I could not allow myself to continue to live a life without personal meaning.